An Observational Science:


Geology, whilst limited to the geology of the earth, is concerned with working out from observations how the systems and processes contained in the matter comprising the earth actually work. It is only when interpolations are made of what lies beyond the horizon of direct detection, for instance to make educated guesses at the likelihood of mineral deposits, that a predictive element creeps in. More exciting it is when knowledge of the earth gained through the study of geology is used to assess what may be found on distant planets and their moons. Even then, when these distant objects are actually visited by remote observational platforms and robots, nature provides shocks and surprises aplenty, illustrating most graphically and at times embarassingly how limited we actually are in our true and real understanding of nature.


(To be extended & continued ..... )




The observational science with little predictive or deterministic information about 'Earth':


In geology there are few laboratory tests that can be repeated other than those borrowed from other disciplines that geology can use to do anything other than confirm theories deirves from geological observations.


By and large the science of geology consists of making observations, forming ideas and theories to explain the observations, and using those to divine what actually is occurring in the parts of the earth under observation.


(To be extended ..... )